Christianity vs. Judaism vs. Islam: Comparison Charts

This comprehensive guide explores the similarities and differences between Christianity, Judaism, and Islam using multiple comparison charts.

From core beliefs and practices to historical events, this article offers a side-by-side comparison to help you understand these three major world religions.

Ideal for students, educators, and anyone interested in understanding the foundations of these traditions.

Christian Jewish and Islamic symbols
Is Christianity, Judaism, or Islam larger? See below

Comparing Christianity, Judaism, and Islam: An Overview

The table below provides readers with a snapshot of these three religions. While such a brief comparison has shortcomings, it can point learners in the right direction for further study.

SizeApprox. 2.3 billionApprox. 14 millionApprox. 1.9 billion
Date Started1st century ADAround 2000 BC7th century AD
FounderJesus ChristAbrahamMuhammad
Key BeliefsTrinity, resurrection, salvation through faithMonotheism, covenant, TorahMonotheism, Five Pillars, prophethood
Key PracticesBaptism, communion, prayerSabbath, kosher, prayerPrayer, fasting, hajj, almsgiving
DivisionsCatholic, Protestant, OrthodoxOrthodox, Conservative, ReformSunni, Shia
Central LocationVatican City (for Catholics)JerusalemMecca, Medina
Sacred TextsBibleTanakh, TalmudQuran, Hadith

Why are Christianity, Judaism, and Islam Called the Abrahamic Religions?

Christianity, Judaism, and Islam are called Abrahamic religions because they all trace their spiritual lineage to Abraham, a key figure in all three traditions.

Abraham is revered for his faith and obedience to God, making him a foundational character in these faith traditions.

Also, see the World Religions Comparison Chart to learn more.

Are all Abrahamic religions monotheistic? See below

Contrasting Christian, Jewish, and Islamic Beliefs

GodOne Trinitarian God: Father, Son, Holy SpiritOne God (Yahweh)One God (Allah)
The UniverseCreated by God; good but fallenCreated by God; fundamentally goodCreated by Allah; a test for humans
Ultimate RealityGod and His KingdomGod and His Law (Torah)Allah and His Will
Human BeingsCreated in God’s image; sinful natureCreated in God’s image; free willCreated by Allah; born pure
The problem with the worldSin separates humans from GodDisobedience to God’s LawDisbelief and disobedience to Allah
The solution to the ProblemSalvation through Jesus ChristRepentance and obedience to TorahSubmission to Allah; following the Five Pillars
The AfterlifeHeaven or Hell based on faith in ChristViews vary; focus often on this lifeHeaven or Hell based on deeds and faith

Does Christianity believe in three gods or one?

Christianity is considered a monotheistic religion because it believes in one God. The concept of the Trinity—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit—doesn’t contradict this, as Christians view the Trinity as three distinct persons within the one Godhead, not as three separate gods.

Where do Christians, Jews, and Muslims worship? See below

Differences in Christian, Jewish, and Islamic Practices

PrayerVarious forms; Lord’s PrayerShema, AmidahSalah (5 daily prayers)
FastingLent, AdventYom Kippur, Tisha B’AvRamadan, other Sunnah fasts
RitualsBaptism, CommunionCircumcision, Bar/Bat MitzvahHajj, Umrah
Dietary LawsVaries by denominationKosherHalal
Day of WorshipSundayShabbat (Friday evening to Saturday evening)Friday (Jumu’ah)
CharityTithing, almsgivingTzedakahZakat, Sadaqah
Scripture StudyBible study, sermonsTorah study, Talmud studyQuranic study, Hadith
PilgrimageNone for most denominationsNoneHajj to Mecca
ConfessionIn some denominationsYom KippurRepentance to Allah
Community GatheringChurch servicesSynagogue servicesMosque congregations

Do Christians, Jews, and Muslims pray to the same God?

While Christians, Jews, and Muslims all claim to worship the God of Abraham, their understanding and portrayal of God differ significantly.

Each religion has unique beliefs and practices that define their concept of God, making it inaccurate to say they pray to the exact same deity.

Christianity and Judaism don’t teach that their followers pray to Allah. Islam doesn’t teach that its followers pray to the God of Christianity and Judaism.

What is the original language of each religion’s sacred text? See below

The Sacred Texts of the Abrahamic Religions

Main TextBibleTanakhQuran
Additional TextsNone for most denominationsTalmudHadith
LanguageOriginally in Hebrew, Aramaic, GreekHebrew, AramaicArabic
Number of Books66 (Protestant), 73 (Catholic)24 in Tanakh, multiple in Talmud1 Quran, multiple Hadith collections
DivisionsOld Testament, New TestamentTorah, Nevi’im, KetuvimSurahs and Ayahs
Central ThemeLife, teachings, and works of Jesus ChristCovenant and law between God and IsraelitesGuidance for life and afterlife
Notable StoriesCreation, Exodus, Life of JesusCreation, Exodus, Kings and ProphetsStories of Prophets, Day of Judgment
Interpretative TraditionVarious Christian commentariesRabbinic literatureTafsir (Quranic exegesis)

Comparing Holy Days in Each Faith Tradition

New Yearnot sacredRosh HashanahIslamic New Year (Hijri)
Major FestivalEasterPassoverEid al-Fitr
Birth of Founder/ProphetChristmas (Jesus)NoneMawlid al-Nabi (Muhammad)
Day of AtonementGood FridayYom KippurDay of Arafah
Harvest FestivalThanksgiving (U.S.)SukkotNone
Fast DayLentTisha B’AvRamadan
Commemoration of ExodusNonePassoverNone
Commemoration of RevelationPentecostShavuotLaylat al-Qadr
religion comparison
What are the important moments in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam? See below

10 Key Events in Christian, Jewish, and Islamic History

RankChristianity EventsJudaism EventsIslam Events
1Birth of Jesus ChristExodus from EgyptBirth of Prophet Muhammad
2Crucifixion of JesusGiving of the Torah at SinaiFirst Revelation to Muhammad
3Resurrection of JesusDestruction of First TempleHijra (Migration to Medina)
4Council of NicaeaDestruction of Second TempleFirst Islamic State in Medina
5Conversion of ConstantineBabylonian ExileConquest of Mecca
6Great SchismMaccabean RevoltDeath of Prophet Muhammad
7Protestant ReformationCompilation of the TalmudUmayyad Caliphate
8Council of TrentExpulsion from SpainAbbasid Caliphate
9First Vatican CouncilZionist MovementCrusades
10Second Vatican CouncilEstablishment of IsraelOttoman Empire

[1] Abrahamic Religions – Wikipedia
[2] Encyclopedia of Judaism
[3] Islam – Britannica
[4] Christianity – BBC

Daniel Isaiah Joseph

Daniel's seminary degree is in Exegetical Theology. He was a pastor for 10 years. As a professor, he has taught Bible and theology courses at two Christian universities. Please see his About page for details.

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